The Rise Of The Holy Roman Empire


Holy Roman Empire followed the principle that the monarch is the guardian of papacy. It has given birth to the political framework of many modern states like Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, Czech Republic, parts of Demark, Poland, France and Italy. These countries were the geographical expressions of the Empire and they did not inhabit the present borders. The past of Europe is shaped by these countries than the Empire which is now known as the Middle Ages of Germany. The transnational character of the Empire is affected by the 18th century observers.

roman1In the words of Voltaire, the French Philosopher commented that it was not Holy, Roman or an Empire. The fall of 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars only went to prove that the empire has just outlived its role and was considered redundant after the emergence of nation states. The divisions in Europe clearly shoes that these states followed similar trends and it is evident in their historical writing and map making. The demarcations were marked with solid colors, these frontiers either increased or decreased with the acquisitions or surrender.

roman2The glorious past of discovering institutions, passing new laws, forging treaties and evaluating measure and weight was chronicled by the historians. The historical writings became more economic or social but did not change the fundamentals but instead added folk to the nation states. The Holy Roman Empire saw its end because it did not follow the historical path. For instance, the first emperor Charlemagne fitted the framework of a being a powerful ruler. He expanded the empire from France to North West Europe, Italy and central Germany. These successions went on to convince the Pope Leo III that Frankish King would be an effective protector than the Byzantine emperor. Meanwhile, Leo made use of the temporary interregnum and transferred the imperial title to Charlemagne.

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The Governance Of Rome & How It Is Relevant Even Today?


Rome was earlier governed by the kings. The Ancient Rome evolves it own governments that governs the Romans. The Roman society used its forceful army to capture other nations and turn them into salves. When it concerns its own people, the Rome was democratic. The Romans had the privilege to elect their officials. The hierarchy of the Roman official system comprised of consuls and below them were two officials. The consuls changed every year, if they meet the expectations of the citizens. They will not be reelected if they do not perform well. In the true sense proficiency was rewarded and incompetency is punished.

romeThe consuls take the advice of the Senate in most cases. The role of the Senate is to legislate new laws, issues related to finance affecting the state and many more. The senate held 600 men and these were represented from noble and rich families. They held the power to decide what was good or bad for the nation. The Roman laws lay in their hands. As the Roman Empire grew and became a powerful city, the top position became lucrative. With this more ambitious men became part of the government. These men opined it would be good for the nation, if one man held the power, and this person was called the emperor.

Despite the consuls being elected by the citizens, the Senate was not a democratic body. Since the Senate was from influential families, the decisions were mostly pro-rich. The people in the lower social class did not have the guts to question the system. The commoners generally believed that the rich were meant to rule and the poor to listen. During the period of the Senate, Rome becomes the power center in Europe and Mediterranean. The Rome was a republic between 509 and 27 BC and it was the period of great power.

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Top 10 Books On Ancient Rome


This list of books was selected by writer Lindsey Davis, a British author whose work depend mainly on the Roman Empire and culture. This writer has given a list of books which the author relies on to get facts about Rome for her works. The books are listed below.

1. Daily Life in Ancient Rome by JérômeCarcopino
This book was published in 1939. It shows Rome as a teeming, noisy metropolis where the rich and poor lived together.

2. A Topographical Dictionary of Rome by Samuel Ball Platner and Thomas Ashby
This book was published in 1929 and this serves as the knowledge of our idea about Roman streets, temples and theatres. But since the book was based mostly on the archeological discovery, it is good to be a little cautious as there have been recent discoveries made.

3. Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum by Paul Roberts
This book is about the eruption of Vesuvius and the sudden death of a mass of people. The book’s illustrations are also complimented on being wonderful.

4. Shopping in Ancient Rome by Claire Holleran
This book is scholarly and is about the Roman retail trade.

5. Gardens of the Roman World by Patrick Bowe
This book is amazingly illustrated and describes the leisurely gardens of Ancient Rome with their cooling streams, ponds and birds.

6. Doctors and Diseases in the Roman Empire by Ralph Jackson
This is a book describes about the medical practices that were seen in the ancient Rome and is definitely not for the squeamish.

7. Ancient inventions by Peter and Nick Thorpe
This book is also about the gruesome medical practices that were seen in ancient Rome. Describes portions and contraptions used in various treatments.

8. The Mysterious Fayum Portraits; Faces from Ancient Egypt by EuphrosyneDoxiades
This book is about the painted portraits of the Egyptian Romans.

9. Orgy-Planner Wanted: Odd Jobs and Curious Careers in the Ancient World by Vicki Leon
This book describes about the odd jobs that existed during the Roman era.

10. How to Win an Election by Quintus Tullius Cicero (translated by Philip Freeman)
As the title suggests, this book is all about the political practices of the ancient Rome.

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Significance Of Women In Ancient Rome


Roman women were given equal rights to men. They enjoy equal opportunities in education, trade and business. Some of the higher strata women also went on to graduate. Despite the forward thinking of the Romans in giving equal status to women, they did not consider it important to give women the right to vote. Yet women were able to alter the political scene by influencing their male relatives or friends. Roman women made great name in trade and business and they even had the right to possess property. women1Though, salve women were not given a high stratus in the society. They were abused, tortured and treated badly by their masters.

In the family women held equal rights to their brothers. They were treated equal to their sons. Roman family was headed by the father and hence it is a patriarchal society. Daughters were given the right to receive the share in the property if the father dies without producing a will. The family name of the women does not change even after marriage. This goes to show that they remain loyal to their pater familias despite a difference of opinion with their husbands. Women enjoy equal legal rights. Legal action or Divorce is common among women ill-treated by their husbands. They can challenge the decision of the family head denying her right in the property.

Highly Decorated Bronze Roman Belt Excavated From Leicester


On the west banks of River Soars, close the Roman town in the south west lays the Fosse Way. Here in the mudstone grave was found a man with a decorative bronze roman belt who may have been a Roman solider or a civil servant who lives somewhere between the 4th and 5th century AD it is predicted. This is a rare piece of excavation was found near the waist and had a belt buckle, strap end and belt plate. The buckle was held designs of dolphins head and end of the strap had designs of crouching dogs on both sides of the tapered ends.

In the other Roman cemeteries, parallels of these sets were discovered especially in Dorchester, Winchester, London and Oudenburg, opposite the English Channel. These belts were used in the North Eastern France and Belgium running close to the borders of the Roman Empire. It was believed that the soldiers were position by the Danube and Rhine rivers. There is pictorial evidence that it was worn by the Late Roman soldiers and elite civilians. It is even believed that the belt holds a symbol of authority. The owner of the discovered belt could be in his forties it is studied. The excavation project was funded by Jamie Lewis Residential and a multi disciplinary team from the University of Leicester Archaeological Services along with others carried out the project.

The Culinary Skills Of The Romans


The Roman kitchens display at Pompeii gives an idea of how the Romans cooked using pans and pots and how their daily lives were like. Before the 79 AD volcanic eruption, the kitchens fed the hunger living in the three storey launderette, the Fullonica di Stephanus. The place is a laundry where the wealthy sent their clothes to be washed here. The clothes were rinsed, dried and pressed and returned to the nobility wrinkle free. The kitchens at the Fullonica looks exactly how it looked some 2,000 years back. The refurbishment has given life to the native kitchen. It is now complete with pots, pans, metal grills and earthenware crockery.

The exposure to Roman cooking practices is a great addition to the history lessons. Food was cooked over troughs where charcoal produced the flames. Meat, vegetables, fish and other food varieties were laid on the drills. Stews and soups also simmered in the pans and pots and were kept in the tripods designed to hold them. This gave them the advantage of elevating above the flames. The cooking equipments used by the ancient Romans are placed on the display. It was first excavated in the year 1912 by Vittorio Spinazzola, the Superintendent of Pompeii.

Though, Spinazzola left the kitchen items as in where condition, while his predecessors had packed them and stored in a glass showcase in various site locations. The modern tourists appreciated this and were now able to understand the lives of their ancestors. The tourist showed interest in learning how the ancient people lived informs, Archaeological Superintendent of Pompeii, Massimo Osanna. Sometime exhibitions were held at the Pallestra Grande to showcase the Roman culinary practices. The visitors visiting the exhibition were awestruck by the carbonized loaf bread and the metal pot holding the fossilized remains of vegetable soup and beans.

The Growth Of Art In Ancient Rome


The establishment of Roman Republic in 509 Ad after the overthrow of the Etruscan kings has an important association with the earliest Roman art. The two main divisions of roman art are divided based on the periods; they are the art of the Roman Empire and art of the Republic. Art does not mean only paintings. Roman art includes painting, architecture, mosaic work and sculpture. Gem engraving, ivory carvings, metal-work and glass works were considered minor art forms of Rome.

Roman art did not portray only the aristocracy, senators or emperors; it included all the people of Rome, like the slaves, soldiers, freedmen and middleclass businessmen. It also depicted the provinces in Rome. Even though there are a huge numbers of art and paintings of Rome like paintings, decorative arts, buildings and sculpture, very few of the artists’ names were recorded. This makes it obvious that the monuments of Rome were for the needs of their patron and not to express their artistic talents.

The traditional view of the Roman art is that they are copied from the Greek precedents; most of the Greek sculptures that are known today are the marble copies of Rome. However, recent analysis of the Roman art has indicated that their art is a highly creative pastiche relying mostly on the Greek art but it also depicts native Italy, Etruscan tradition and Egyptian culture.

The large number of Roman art’s Greek inspiration shows that the high esteem the Roman artists had for the Greek art. This was thought to be because of the higher and rarer quality of the Greek art. The many of the art forms used by Romans, like the free-standing sculpture, high and low relief, mosaic, coin art, cameo, metalwork, fine jewelry, metal work, perspective drawing, genre and portrait painting, caricature, landscape painting, and trompe l’oeil painting, were all refined and developed by ancient Greek artists.